Cryptocurrencies have become extremely popular in recent years. This is not surprising when you consider the high chances of netting huge profits from these types of trades.
However, if you trade in crypto, you need to pay taxes. And if you’ve ever attempted to file your own taxes, you know how time-consuming and frustrating the entire process can be.
That’s why you need crypto tax software that will take all the hard work out of it and simplify your tax filing tasks.
Each of the software tools reviewed in this article is designed to do just that. They automate the syncing with all your wallets and crypto exchanges, and you will be able to get in-depth tax reports in just minutes.
Read through the rest of this review guide to find the best crypto tax software with the right automation and integration features to suit your needs.
What is the Best Crypto Tax Software?
Best Crypto Tax Software for Advanced Use Cases, including Staking (Starts from FREE, then $49/year).
Koinly simplifies your taxes in a number of ways. For example, the platform allows you to easily import your trades. Simply add the exchange accounts via CSV files or API and use public addresses to connect your blockchain wallets.
You can use the platform for Futures, DeFi, and Margin Trades. Stake on Kraken, lend on Nexo, or go long on BitMEX – Koinly takes care of it all!
The platform supports 300+ exchanges and wallets and has smart transfer matching using its powerful AI to detect transfers between your own wallets so you can keep track of original costs.
Another amazing feature of the platform is that it allows you to get a glimpse of your profit and loss for the tax year, all for free.
You get a beautiful dashboard with Portfolio Tracking features that allow you to see your total holdings, as well as growth and ROI over time. The Profit/Loss and Capital Gains feature lets you see at a glance how much your account is up or down.
Easily see you realized and unrealized capital gains and more.
Furthermore, Koinly generates the right crypto tax reports for you so you have all the information you need at hand whether you are working with an accountant or filing yourself using tax software tools like TurboTax.
- Easy Trade Import: Add your exchange accounts using CSV files or the platform’s powerful API.
- Preview Capital Gains: Get a clear look at your profit/loss for the tax year with no additional charges.
- Download Tax Documents: Koinly generates the right crypto tax reports so you can file in the US.
Koinly has a simple pricing structure which includes a free forever plan that comes with essential features for up to 10,000 transactions.
Premium plans range from $49/tax year to $179/tax year and include advanced features, such as comprehensive tax reports, smart transfer matching, and more.
Best Crypto Tax Calculation Software for Large Enterprises ($65/tax year).
This is an exceptional piece of crypto tax calculation software that you can rely on for all your taxes.
The platform has a wide selection of crypto tax reports to choose from, including IRS form 8949, which gives you one less thing to worry about. Furthermore, TokenTax offers so much more by combining technology and human expertise to simplify even the most sophisticated crypto tax cases.
One of the main reasons why this software stands out from the rest is its offering of crypto tax services. TokenTax is not only a crypto tax calculation software, but also a full-service crypto tax accounting firm which means that if you’d rather not deal with anything yourself, everything will be taken care of for you by the platform’s skilled cryptocurrency tax filing team.
Get assistance with your crypto tax income, create a cryptocurrency audit trail, generate international gain/loss reports, and much more.
The team is available to assist you with any tax-related tasks, all you have to do is send a message on the website and they’ll get back to you promptly.
This platform, like most others on this list, also offers margin trading support and is equipped to help with tax-loss harvesting.
- Seamless Data Syncing: TokenTax allows you to sync all your data seamlessly by easily connecting with your wallets and accounts to eliminate manual data entry.
- Preview Tax Bills in Real-Time: You’ll never be caught unprepared with the platform’s robust tax reports feature that lets you track and preview your tax liability in real-time.
- Wide Range of Tax Forms: The platform has every single tax form you might need and the software will automatically generate the right form to complete your filings.
TokenTax doesn’t offer a free trial. You can choose from 4 premium plans, starting with the Basic plan at $65/tax year. This is ideal for casual Coinbase and Coinbase Pro investors and allows up to 500 transactions.
At the other end of the spectrum, the VIP plan allows up to 30,000 transactions and comes with advanced crypto reconciliation features.
Best Crypto Tax Software for Easy-to-Understand Calculations ($49/year).
Instead of struggling with Excel, use this reliable platform to sort out your tax nightmare through the use of features such as configurable tax settings, as well as integrations with major wallets, exchanges, and chains.
You get support for NFTs, DEX, and DeFi trading. Once you sign up, you’ll have access to powerful and accurate tax reports calculated by the platform with high accuracy.
CryptoTaxCalculator uses customizable rules that support each user’s unique individual circumstances. Everything is considered, including complex tax scenarios like DeFi loans, DEX transactions, leveraged trading, gas fees, staking rewards, and various other parameters.
You’ll then be provided with a full breakdown to make it as easy as possible for you to understand the calculations of your taxes, including what rules have been applied.
You can easily export your data to your tax software. Or, if you are working with an accountant, forward it to them with the click of a button.
The platform supports a variety of countries outside the US, including Portugal, Japan, Greece, and the UK, with many more being added all the time.
Whether you’re a hobbyist or a serious trader/investor, you’ll find a plan to take care of all your crypto tax needs on this platform. There are also many integrations with popular exchanges that allow the software to use the data to provide you with extremely detailed calculations.
- Powerful and Accurate Tax Reports: CryptoTaxCalculator performs all your tax calculations with a very high degree of accuracy.
- Supports DeFi and DEX Trading: The platform works with a wide range of complex DeFi products, including DEX such as Uniswap, SushiSwap, and Pancakeswap.
- Easy to Understand Calculations: Get a full and comprehensive breakdown of your tax calculations and the rules that were used so you can have a better understanding of your reports.
Crypto Tax Calculator generates reports for all your financial years under just the single 365-day subscription. Plans start at $49/year for the Rookie plan which is perfect for users who dabble in crypto and support 100 transactions. You’ll also find plans for hobbyists, traders, and investors, each of which are billed yearly.
Best Crypto Tax Software for TurboTax Integration ($49/100 trades).
CoinLedger, formerly CryptoTrader.tax, is a cryptocurrency and NFT tax platform that is designed to save you time and maximize your refund. It comes with free portfolio tracking features, as well as international support.
The tax software works in a very simple way. First, import your transactions. You can do this easily with just a few clicks, which takes away the hassle of preparing your crypto and bitcoin taxes. Now you can do it all in just a few easy steps.
Simply connect your exchanges and import your historical transactions. CoinLedger integrates directly with all your favorite platforms, allowing you to import every transaction and calculate your taxes easily, whether you’re trading, earning interest, or purchasing NFTs.
Once your transactions are imported, you can start tracking your portfolio. You can see your entire transaction history from every integrated platform.
Get a clear view of your income, gains, and losses from your trades, staking, mining, and NFTs. There’s no charge to gain access to all this information, and you can download your crypto tax report in just minutes.
Trusted by over 300k crypto investors, CoinLedger is an official TurboTax partner and the best part is that you can get started using the crypto tax platform for free.
- Trusted TurboTax Partner: CoinLedger partners with the largest tax preparation company to make it easier for you to report your crypto gains and losses.
- International Tax Reporting: Easily generate crypto reports for losses, gains, and income in any currency.
- Powerful Integrations: The platform has dozens of integrations with crypto tax tools from wallets and exchanges to DeFi, and everything in between.
Crypto tax report pricing starts from $49/100 trades. This plan is perfect for hobbyists, and if you want more trades, you can upgrade to one of the higher-priced plans.
All plans come with a 14-day money-back guarantee and you also have the option of using CoinLedger for free to import your crypto transaction history and track your portfolio. Only pay if you want to download and view your entire tax report.
Best Crypto Tax Software with Hundreds of Powerful Integrations ($79/500 transactions).
If you want to track easily and report your crypto taxes on your own, then this platform is a great one to consider. You can also use it with TurboTax or the platform’s crypto tax advisors. Either way, you know your tax requirements will be met and handled with ease.
You can get started using Accointing.com for free. Simply sign up on the website, log into the intuitive interface, and follow the prompts to instantly import all your crypto transactions, review your portfolio, and receive extremely valuable insights – all from within your dashboard.
It only takes 5 clicks to receive your own customized crypto tax report from any country, and the platform will generate any tax form you require in under 5 minutes.
Moreover, you’ll get tools to review the performance of the crypto market as a whole, as well as set up alerts and research trending tokens. You can then share these through your curated and personalized token lists on Twitter.
Suffice it to say that this powerful platform has everything you need to handle all your crypto needs under one convenient roof.
- Instantly Import All Your Transactions: With over 300 integrations, this platform allows you to access all your crypto transactions so you can automatically calculate your losses and wins.
- Powerful Crypto Tracker: Use your dashboard and crypto tracking tool to analyze your performance and see your transactions in real-time.
- Easily File Crypto Taxes: The software generates the Form 8949 to fill your Schedule D Form and a crypto tax report to send to your CPA.
Accointing’s pricing structure is simple. You can get started on the platform for free, and get up to 25 transactions every year.
When you exceed that, you can upgrade to one of the paid plans which start from $79/500 transactions. For $199 you’ll get 5k transactions, and for $299, you can get up to 50k transactions.
Best Crypto Tax Software with a Free Plan (Starts from FREE, then $49/year).
With ZenLedger, you’ll be able to get your NFT, DeFi, and crypto taxes completed in just minutes.
This platform is easy to use and takes all the hard work out of doing your taxes, particularly if you’re dealing with hundreds or thousands of transactions, in which case, calculating your crypto taxes can prove to be quite an overwhelming process.
Fortunately, this crypto tax software has features to simplify every aspect of it. Track your trades, see your gains and losses, and never again overpay on your crypto taxes.
The best part is that you can start using ZenLedger for free with no credit card required. Sign up on the website, and you can instantly import your transaction history from exchanges and wallets via the platform’s API, public receiving address, or CSV files to create a comprehensive crypto tax report.
You can then review your transactions to make sure that you have imported successfully. The software’s custom-designed resolution center will allow you to identify any transactions that are missing so you can ensure fully accurate reports.
Finally, download your forms with one click. The tax software makes it easy to instantly generate and sign your forms, including Form 8949, Schedule D, and Schedule 1.
- Free Plan Available: ZenLedger not only has affordably priced plans for all users but also has a free plan available.
- Premium Support Offered: The platform’s customer support team is always on hand to help you 24/7 via chat, email, or phone.
- Tax-Loss Harvesting Tool: You get detailed reports included in all plans so you can save money and trade smarter.
ZenLedger lets you choose between crypto DIY plans and Tax Professional Prepared Plans. All plans are competitively priced and you get huge discounts when you purchase multiple years.
The free plan allows up to 25 transactions and the Starter plan costs $49/year for up to 100 transactions.
Best Crypto Tax Software for Enterprise Accounting Needs (Starts from Free).
Taxbit provides tax and accounting services for the tokenized economy. It caters to all types of users, including individuals, governments, enterprise tax, and enterprise accounting. It’s a modern technology approach for powering digital assets accounting and tax, and on the platform, you’ll find tools such as intelligent optimization.
Designed by CPAs and tax attorneys, this software offers a zero-error game when it comes to tax form filings and 1099 issuances.
Yet another exceptional feature of Taxbit is its privacy and security focus. The software is independently SOC-2 certified to ensure the total safety of your data. This is one of the main reasons why it’s so trusted by the authorities and currently works with many of the largest regulatory agencies across the world.
Additionally, you’ll get seamless integration with the platform’s powerful APIs that connect intuitively with different native platforms, allowing you to instantly automate and optimize your processes.
The bottom line is, if you need year-round tax and portfolio management, this is the platform for you.
It’s designed to scale, which means it’s perfect for individuals, small businesses, and large entities.
Best of all, this industry-leading platform comes with real-time support to help make it easier for you to incorporate up to date processes and streamline everything for your convenience.
- Enterprise Accounting: Taxbit is the ERP subledger solution for all your digital assets.
- Government: You get regulatory compliance of digital assets at scale, including tax calculation, automated data analysis and examination support for regulatory entities.
- Experienced Support Team: The platform has real people with real expertise on hand to solve all your problems, including CPAs, tax attorneys, and tax specialists.
Individuals can automate their currency tax forms for free. Simply sign up on the platform and connect your wallets, exchanges, NFTs, DeFi protocols, etc. and then download your completed tax form with one click. Enterprise tax users can request a demo on the site and customer service will get back to you promptly.
Best Crypto Tax Software for Ease of Use (Starts from FREE, then $59/year).
TurboTax offers tax services done right, regardless of whether you’re filing on your own or working with an accountant. If you’re filing on your own, simply select the appropriate option on the site and the intuitive software will guide you through the entire process of filing your taxes.
You can get started for free by signing up on the website. Alternatively, you can opt for TurboTax Live where you get live experts to help by providing you with advice and answers as you go.
On this plan, you’ll also get a final expert review prior to filing. Another option on the site is to get a dedicated tax expert to handle everything to do with taxes for you from start to finish. This full-service option is perfect for anyone who wants a hassle-free done-for-you solution.
All you have to do is simply snap and upload your tax documents securely on the platform. Next, you will be matched with an ideal expert for your particular tax situation who will then proceed to do your taxes, all the while keeping you in the loop.
You’ll be able to review everything with your tax expert before they file.
For your peace of mind, the platform offers a satisfaction guarantee and 100% accurate calculations on your tax return or they will pay the IRS penalties.
- Intuitive Platform: TurboTax offers a simple process that lets you file your taxes with confidence.
- Live Experts on Site: Answer a few easy questions about your work, life, family, etc. and the on-site experts will fill in all the right tax forms for you.
- Superfast Refunds: With TurboTax, you’ll get your fastest tax refund possible. File taxes electronically and receive email confirmation as soon as your tax return is accepted.
TurboTax allows you to start for free whether you are doing your own taxes or if you want expert help during the process.
The free edition includes simple tax returns only, and if you want to maximize tax deductions and credits, you need to upgrade to one of the paid plans which start at $59. You only pay when you file.
Best Crypto Tax Platform for Doing Crypto and NFT Taxes Fast (Starts from FREE, then $59/tax year).
This platform offers crypto and NFT taxes done fast. It’s trusted by over 1 million users, and it’s easy to see why. It easily syncs your wallets and generates all types of tax forms. You get automated portfolio tracking that lets you view market value, portfolio allocation, and investment performance in real-time.
Unify your transaction history across all the crypto services you use so you can easily search and filter your data. The platform supports over 10,000 cryptocurrencies and 300+ exchanges.
With CoinTracker.io, you’ll be able to save money all year round. The software automatically optimizes cost basis accounting methods, allowing you to tax-loss harvest your portfolio and save thousands every year. Additional visibility into tax loss can also help you make better trades.
Become tax compliant seamlessly with easy to understand tax rules. This intuitive platform simplifies everything for you and you can download your tax reports in just minutes to file on your own or send to your accountant.
The platform has full support for the UK, US, Canada, and Australia. There’s also partial support for other countries. Use the mobile app to keep an eye on your crypto portfolio. You’ll be able to view prices on the go so you never lose track of any of your assets regardless of where you are.
- Coin Diversity: CoinTracker.io supports over 10,000 cryptocurrencies which allows you to diversify your portfolio significantly.
- Powerful Integrations: The software supports over 300 exchanges and wallets with data from Nomics.
- Seamless Tax Compliance: The intuitive platform will help you become fully compliant with all cryptocurrency tax rules in your country.
You can get started with Coin Tracker for free. You get up to 25 transactions, as well as costs basis & capital gains, error reconciliation, and forum support. To get up to 100 transactions, you can sign up for the Hobbyist plan that starts at $59 one-time payment for the tax year.
10. Bitcoin Taxes
Best Crypto Tax Software with Portfolio Value Tracking Feature (Starts from FREE, then $39.95/tax year).
Bitcoin Taxes offers crypto and bitcoin taxes for capital gains and income. You can easily file your taxes on your own or choose the full tax preparation service offered on the platform.
Simply sign up or login on the website and you’ll be able to get started right away. You’ll get exchange imports, fast calculations, and easy file downloads.
This is one of the most established cryptocurrency tax calculation services that can accurately work out your gains and losses and then provide you with the data and forms required to file your taxes.
In short, this platform takes all the hard work out of the entire process of filing your taxes, giving you ease and peace of mind.
To get started, simply upload your transactions from the wallets and exchanges you used, together with any crypto you already own. The platform will then proceed to complete your capital gains calculation.
You can get started for free or opt for one of the premium plans that can process up to millions of transactions. If you choose the full tax preparation service, you’ll be able to get everything done for you by top professionals in the industry, including CPAs, tax attorneys, and enrolled agents in the US and Canada.
- Save on TurboTax: When you sign up for online tax preparation services with Bitcoin Taxes, you’ll be able to save 15%on TurboTax.
- Crypto Taxation Podcasts: Listen in on the platform’s cryptocurrency taxation series where tax attorneys, accountants, and companies talk about some of the current issues around crypto taxation.
- Ideal for Tax Professionals: This platform is also well-suited to accountants and tax professionals, CPAs, or accounting firms that want to enter transactions on behalf of clients.
Bitcoin Taxes offers different prices for individuals, tax professionals, and traders. You can get started for free for up to 20 trading transactions. You’ll get all the software’s standard features and email support. Upgrade to the premium plan for $39.95/tax year to get up to 1,000 trading transactions.
Best Crypto Tax Software for Customizable Reports and Interactive Coin Charts (Starts from FREE, then $10.99/month billed yearly).
This is a leading platform for crypto tracking and tax reporting. You can analyze your trades and generate real-time reports on your profits and losses. See the value of your coins and all you realized and unrealized gains, and get in-depth reports for taxes, and much more.
On the platform, you’ll find prices for 19,772 assets and coins which gives you a complete overview at all times.
Used by over 25,000 corporate clients and CPAs, this platform has all the tools you need to manage your crypto taxes. From personal analysis and trade imports to tax declaration, coin charts and trends, security and encryption, etc., you’ll easily find what you need on the dashboard.
Best of all, you have professional help available to you if you need advice on crypto tax laws for different countries, tax reviews, etc.
Share your data with the platform’s expert crypto tax advisers or watch detailed tutorials and video guides to learn more about the industry.
Whether you are just starting out in investing or if you are a pro at digital currency trading, the coin tracking platform will allow you to track all your transactions easily in real-time.
If you are new to the platform, you can watch the in-depth videos and tutorials that explain all the settings and functions of the platform.
- Personal Analysis: Get customizable crypto reports and interactive charts for coins and trades.
- Trade imports: Quickly and easily import from over 110 exchanges. Use Excel, PDF, CSV, or import automatically via APIs.
- Security and Encryption: The platform has robust two-factor authentication and data and API encryption. You can also create and restore trade backups and no access to exchanges is required.
If you are a new crypto investor, you can get started for free on CoinTracking.info. You’ll get up to 200 transactions, 5 MB per CSV file, and your personal trade backups.
To unlock additional features, you can upgrade to one of the paid plans that start at $10.99/month billed yearly.
Best Crypto Tax Software for Simple Integrations with Traditional Tax Software (Starts from FREE, then $49/tax year).
Bear.tax is a popular bitcoin and cryptocurrency tax software tool that allows you to fetch trades from anywhere and identify transfers across exchanges. With this platform, you can also auto generate tax documents to make filing a whole lot easier.
The entire process is simple. First, bring in all your trades from any exchange on the planet using file uploads or the platform’s API.
Next, review and assign the right prices to each of your transactions and then process them using either FIFO or LIFO methods.
Finally, download your tax documents. The software will auto generate your tax documents and send them to your favorite tax software or your accountant.
Whether you’re a trader, investor, fund manager, or accountant, the software has all the features you need to calculate cryptocurrency gains and losses.
You’ll never have to worry about using manual calculations or spreadsheets. With unlimited exchanges, auditable reports, no pay wall, and 24/7 support, this robust platform is perfect for all types of users, including accounting professionals and high-frequency traders who need to crunch millions of transactions per minute.
- Auto-Generated Tax Documents: Bear.tax allows you to download completed tax documents like IRS 8949 and audit trail reports to send to your accountant or file yourself.
- Intuitive Platform: You get everything you need to file your crypto taxes in one place organized so you can connect with exchanges and identify transfers in just a few steps.
- Global Product: Bear Tax works globally with local support teams. Currently, the platform supports the US, Canada, India, and Australia and auto assigns tax rules to your account. According to the country chosen.
Bear Tax has a free startup plan for up to 20 transactions. The platform has simple and fair pricing based on how many transactions you complete.
Premium plans start at $49/year for up to 200 lifetime transactions. You can preview your gain/loss info for each asset for free and you only pay to download tax documents.
What is Crypto Tax Software?
Doing your own crypto taxes can be a daunting process. But with the right tools, even a beginner can get it right.
Crypto tax software is a data aggregating tool that helps to make the process of calculating a crypto tax return easier by compiling all your cryptocurrency transactions from different sources.
The software then calculates crypto taxes using methods that follow IRS guidelines or different tax rules from other countries.
With such tools, filing your taxes becomes a lot simpler. Even without enlisting the services of an accountant, you’ll be able to better manage your investments and stay compliant with IRS regulations.
Types of Crypto Tax Software
Not all crypto tax software tools are created the same. There are different types designed for different uses.
Here are a few examples of the common types of tax software:
- Form-Based Tax Software: This type of software mimics tax document layout and customers are required to fill in all the correct information in each corresponding section according to the tax document.
- Interview-Based Tax software: This type of crypto tax software collects information from users in a question-and-answer format. The information is then entered into the relevant places in the document.
- Electronic Filing Software: Also called eFiling software, this is one of the most preferred types of crypto tax software these days. It allows you to save time, reduce filing errors, and secure your tax forms online.
What Features to Look For in Crypto Tax Software
As previously mentioned, not all crypto tax software tools are created the same. Each has its own unique set of features, which means it comes with its own unique set of benefits and drawbacks.
In order to choose the right one for you, you must know the essential features to consider when comparing software pieces.
Some features to look for in crypto tax software include:
1. Integrations: You must choose software that has the best integrations with wallets and exchanges through the use of API, CSV configurations, etc. so you can easily connect and transfer files between crypto platforms and programs.
2. Bandwidth: Bandwidth refers to the platform’s data transfer capacity. You need to choose cryptocurrency tax software with great data transfer capabilities to ensure that it will be able to handle all your crypto transaction imports, particularly if you are a heavy crypto trader who conducts trades frequently.
3. Customer Support: If problems should arise, you need to know that there’s reliable support available to you at all times so make sure you choose a company that offers robust customer support through a variety of channels, such as email, chat, phone, knowledge base etc.
4. Pricing: This is one of the top considerations for users. It’s important to choose a software that provides the greatest number of features for the most affordable price. Just keep in mind that some tax tools try to woo you with flashy but unnecessary tools, such as tax-loss harvesting or portfolio tracking. If you don’t need all these bells and whistles, then there’s no reason to be paying for them.
5. Well-Established Platform: The reputation of your chosen platform is yet another important factor to consider. You alone will be held responsible for any errors on your tax returns, which is why you need a reliable platform. Look for customer testimonials and online reviews to see what other users think of that platform. Learn as much as you can about its history and track record before committing to the software.
6. Essential Functions: Choose software that has the capability to compile data, organize it effectively, and retrieve information easily. The platform should also be able to format your data and track your gains and losses easily and efficiently. Here’s a quick look at a few essential functions to look for:
- Retrieve Prices for Assets: Imported data should be sorted by each crypto asset’s fiat currency value.
- Compile and Organize Data: The program should be able to import data at scale and in standardized formats, as well as compile and organize your data efficiently.
- Generate Crypto Tax Report Templates: After importing data, the accounting software should format your tax report according to IRS recommended forms, e.g. Form 8949.
- Calculate Capital Gains and Losses: The software should show you the calculation behind your losses and gains so you can properly prepare tax filing with the IRS.
- Track Current Year’s Gains/Losses: Your chosen platform should allow you to clearly see your losses and gains for the year, and be able to track them yearly so you can see your tax movements clearly.
7. Security: These days, this is a very important factor to consider because of the rise in cybersecurity threats. Choose a crypto tax platform that has robust security measures in place in order to ensure the safety of your data (both personal and transaction-related) at all times.
Crypto Tax Software Summary & Top Picks
This guide has outlined many of the top crypto tax software tools currently available. Most require paid subscriptions to access advanced features, but many of them offer free trial so you can test out the software to determine if it’s the right fit for you.
With the right tool, you’ll be able to confidently file your crypto taxes and transfer your tax information from your computer to the IRS or your accountant in just a few clicks.
Choose the right software for you according to your needs and the features offered on the platform.
As a quick recap, here are three of my top picks for the best crypto tax software:
- Koinly: Best Crypto Tax Software for Advanced Use Cases, including Staking (Starts from FREE, then $49/year).
- TokenTax: Best Crypto Tax Calculation Software for Large Enterprises ($65/tax year).
- CryptoTaxCalculator: Best Crypto Tax Software for Easy to Understand Calculations ($49/year).
I hope this guide has helped you find the best crypto tax software to simplify the process of filing your taxes.